Database Management Systems
Year / Semester: 
3rd Semester


Unit 1: Basic Concepts
Database and Need for DBMS, Characteristics of DBMS, Database Users, 3-tier architecture of
DBMS (its advantages over 2-tier), Data Models

Unit 2: Database Design using ER model
Entities, Relationships, Representation of entities, attributes, relationship attributes, relationship set,
Generalization, aggregation, Structure of relational Database and different types of keys, Expressing
M: N relation

Unit 3: Relational Model Codd’s rules, Relational data model & relational algebra, Relational model concept, Relational model constraints, Relational Algebra, Relational calculus,

Unit 4:Introduction to SQL, Characteristics of SQL, Advantages of SQL, SQL data types and literals, Types of SQL commands

Unit 5: Elements of SQL SQL operators and their procedure, Tables, views and indexes, Queries and sub queries, Aggregate functions, Insert, update and delete operations, Joins, Unions, Intersection, Minus

Unit 6: Relational Database design
Database Design – ER to Relational, Functional dependencies, Normalization, Normal forms based
on primary keys (1 NF, 2 NF, 3 NF, BCNF, 4 NF, 5 NF), Loss less joins and dependency, preserving

Unit 7: Transaction Processing Concepts
Introduction to transaction processing; transaction and system concepts; desirable properties of transaction; characteristics schedule based on recoverability; characteristics schedule based on serializability.

Unit 8: Concurrency Control and recovery
Two phase loc king techniques for concurrency control; concurrency control based on timestamp ordering; multi-version concurrency control techniques; validation(optimistic) concurrency control techniques; granularity of data items and multi granularity locking, recovery concepts and recovery techniques.

Unit 9: Security and privacy
Database security issues, Discretionary access control based on grant & revoking privilege, Mandatory access control and role based access control for multilevel security, Encryption & public key infrastructures