Basic Digital Electronics, Assembly, Installation & Troubleshooting, Computer Architecture
Year / Semester: 
1st Semester

To equip students with the knowledge of computer hardware and troubleshooting.



Number systems and Data Representation

Introduction, basic features of Digital System, Number Systems, Inter conversion of Two Different Number Systems.

Codes and Binary Arithmetic

Introduction, Codes, Arithmetic Operations.

Boolen Algebra and Simplification Techniques

Introduction, Switching Algebra, Boolean Variable and Boolean Algebra, Boolean Constant and Operators, Boolean Functions and Truth Tables, Equivalence of Boolean Expressions, Boolean Laws and Theorems.

Digital Logic and Arithmetic Circuits

Introduction, Digital Logic Gates, Logic Design using Basic Gates, Universal Gates.

Combinational Circuits

Introduction, Combinational Circuit and its Tyes, Design procedure for Combinational Circuit, Encoders, Decoders, Multiplexers, Demultiplexers.

Flip Flops

Introduction, Flip-flops, Types of Flip-flops, Togging Modes of S-R and D Flip-Flops, Triggering of Flip-Flops.

Registers and Counters

Introduction, Registers, Shift Registers and its Types, Serial In-Serial Out Shift Register, Parallel In-Parallel Out Register, Counters and its Tyes, Asynchronous or Ripple Counter, Synchronous Counters.

Memory Organizatyion the Intoduction to Storage System

Intoruction, Memory System Design, Memory Hierarchy, Memory Characteristics, Memory Classification, Buffer, ROMs and Their Classification, Applications of ROMs, Secondary Storage Devices, FD and its tyes, HD, Floppy Disk, Oprical Disk, CD Rom, Magnetic Tape, Smart Cards, Flash memory Cards, Comparative characteristics of seconday memories, Cache memory and virtual memory.

Microprocessor and CPU Design

Introduction, CPU, Microprocessor and cpu ORGANIZATION, Clock and its speed, Processor and its tyes, parallel Processing and Parallel Computers, CPU related terminoloties.

Basic Computer Design

Introcution, Machine Instructions, instruction Cycle, Instruction Format, Addressing Modes.

CISC and RISC Architecture

Introduction, CISC, RISC Machines.


Computer Assembly


Choosing the parts- • What operating system am I going to use? • What will be the main function of the computer? • Do I plan on overclocking my computer? • Do I plan on underclocking my computer? • Can I use any of the parts from my old computer? • Where do I find the parts? • What should affect the choice of any part/peripheral? • Primary components Secondary components • Peripherals • External links


Tools and equipment o Basic tools o Optional, but useful tools Preparation o Safety precautions Construction o Motherboard o CPU o RAM o Video card Power up Installing drive jumpers Installing drives Additional hardware and peripherals


Planning an Installation of Microsoft Windows XP Professional System Requirements Hardware and Software Compatibility Hard Disk Partitions File Systems Pre-installation Checklist Installation of Windows XP Professional without user intervention Creating Answer Files Creating a Uniqueness Database File Performing an automated installation of Windows XP Professional Creating and Deploying an Image Preparing a Reference Computer Creating, Testing, and Deploying an Image Remote Installation Services Hardware Device Configuration Configuring and Installing Hardware Devices Plug and Play Devices Installation Non-Plug and Play Devices Installation Viewing Installed Devices Configuring Multiple Monitors Adding a Local Printer Working with Device Drivers What is Device Driver Signing? Updating Device Drivers Device Driver Rollback Troubleshooting Hardware Devices Using Device Manager to Troubleshoot Devices Removing Devices Configuring Resources Disk Management Working with Basic Disks Organizing a Basic Disk Creating Partitions on a Basic Disk Adding a Basic Disk Dynamic Disks Converting basic disk to dynamic disk Converting dynamic disk to basic disk Types of volumes Creating volumes Moving dynamic disk Managing Disks Viewing Disk Status and Properties Extending a Volume or Partition Deleting a Volume or Partition Changing a Drive Letter Creating a Mount Point DiskDefragmentation Boot Process of Windows XP Professional Examining the Windows XP Professional Boot Process BootProcess Controlling the Boot Process Control Sets LastKnownGood Configuration Changing Startup Behavior Using the Boot.ini File BootiniFile Components and functions of bootini file ARC Path Modifying the Bootini File Troubleshooting startup problemsB Using Safe Mode Using Advanced Boot Options Recovery Console Starting the Computer with Recovery console Restoring the Computer to a Previous State Configuring TCP/IP Addressing and Name Resolution Configuring TCP/DP Overview of IP Address Configuring an IP Address Troubleshooting TCP/IP Utilities used for Troubleshooting TCP/IP Name Resolution Methods for TCP/IP Overview of Name Resolution Types of Names-Hostname and NetBIOS name Dynamic IP Mapping Vs Static IP Mapping Types of Name Resolution Methods Hostname resolution method NetBIOS name resolution method Configuring a DNS and WINS Client Configure a DNS client Configure a WINS client Troubleshooting DNS name resolution Operating in Microsoft Networks Examining Network Types and User Account Types Types of Network Types of User Accounts Creating and Authenticating Local User Accounts Creating a Local User Account Authenticating a Local User Account Configuration of Local Security Overview of Microsoft Management console Creation of a Customized Security Console Configuration of Account Policies User Configuration Settings Configuring logon and logoff options in Workgroup Logon and Logoff Options in a Workgroup Configuring Microsoft Windows XP Professional to Support Remote Users Establishing Remote Access Connections Outbound Connections Types of Connection for Remote Access Configuring Outbound Connections Remote Access Session Data Transport Protocols Multilink Connections Configuring a Multilink Connections Connecting to Virtual Private Network Overview of Virtual Private Network Configuring a Virtual Private Network Connection Types of Virtual Private Network Protocols Configuring VPN Protocol on Remote Client Configuring Inbound Connection Configuring an Inbound Connection for Remote Access Configuring Authentication Protocols and Encryption Standard Authentication Protocols Extensible Authentication Protocols Configuring Client Authentication Protocols Data Encryption Using Remote Desktop Overview of Remote Desktop Feature Configuring Remote Desktop Feature Best Practices to Secure Remote Desktop Access Storing User Names and Passwords to Facilitate Remote Connections Storing User Credentials for Remote Access How Stored User Names and Password Function Benefits of Stored User Names and Passwords Best Practices for Stored User Names and Passwords Configuring Networking Options in a Workgroup Network Setup Wizard Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) Internet Connection Firewall (ICF) Enabling ICS and ICF Dual Boot Windows XP Understanding the Task Manager Shutdown Problems Monitoring System Performance Microsoft Management Console Working with MMC Adding Snap-ins Managing Resource from Console Windows Saving the Console and Closing MMC Windows System Restore Making Restore points using system Restore Wizard Changing System Restore Setting Making Space on Hard Disk for System Restore Turning off System Restore Automatic Updates - Configuring Automatic Updates feature

Troubleshooting Basics

Basic Troubleshooting - The need for a Troubleshooting Plan, Elements of a Troubleshooting, A General Troubleshooting Process, Flowcharting, Symbols used in Flowcharts, Advantages of Flowcharts Diagnostic, Troubleshooting and Repait tools - Diagnostic Software, Diagnostic hardware, The PC Tool Kit Windows Troubleshooter


Keyboard - Types of Keyboards, Inside the Keyboard, Keyboard Technologies Keyboard Maintenance - Correcting Problem Keyboards, Vacuum Cleaners and Keyboard, Replacing the Spacebar, Preventing Problem, Dealing with Liquids, Keyboard Cleaning Breakdown to Breakthrough


Mouse Basics, Inside the Mouse, Adjusting Mouse Properties, Mouse Keys, Mouse Maintenance, Optical Mouse, Breakdown to Breakthrough, USB Mouse Troubleshooting Tips, General Troubleshooting Tips, Basic Troubleshooting Flowchart for Mouse


Monitor - Basics, Technology, UXGA, VGA, DVI, Viewable Area, Maximum Resolution and Dot Pitch, Colour Depth, Power Consumption, Flat panels, Monitor Resolution Power Management - Colour Depths, Degaussing, Power options for Monitor, Display Options for Monitor Monitor Maintenance


Printer Characteristics- Type Quality, Print Speed, Impact and Non Impact Printer, Fonts Dot Matrix Printer InkJet Printer Laser Printer Printers in Windows Operating system - Installing Network Printer Common features of Inkjet/Laser Printers Inkjet/Laser Printer Maintenance Cancel Printing Job Setting preferences and defaults for printing Uninstalling a Printer Breakdown to Breakthrough

Optical Media

What is Multimedia?, CD ROM, CD ROM Drive Buffers/Cache, Theory of CD ROM Drive Operation, Internal and External CD ROM Drives, CD ROM Disk Loading CD-R CD-RW DVD ROM – Decoder, DVD Technologies, DVD Standards, Drive Interfaces and Connectors, Drive upgrade Maintenance for DVD and CD Drives New Technologies CD ROM and DVD Driver Installation Writing Data on CD Cleaning CD Drive

Hard Disk Drives

Hard Disk Drives - History of Hard Disk Drive, Construction and Operation of the Hard Disk Drive, Hard disk Read/ Write Heads Hard Disk Logical Structure and File Systems - FAT, FAT12, FAT16, Virtual FAT, 32-Bit FAT , NTFS, HPFS Hard Disk Tools - Disk Cleanup, Error Checking, Disk Defragmentation, Defragmenting Hard Disk, Change Drive Name and Letter, Scanning Hard Disk for Virus, Formatting a Hard Disk, Formatting a Hard Disk from Windows, Formatting a Hard Disk from DOS Windows Installing an Additional IDE Hard Disk - Master and Slave drive, CMOS Identifying the Drive, Using Disk Management for Newly Installed Hard Disk, Partitioning the New Drive New Trends in Hard Disk Drive - Pocket hard Disk Drives Controlling Data Loss - Causes of Data Loss, Do when data is lost, Prevention of Data loss.

Floppy Disk Drive

Floppy Media, Floppy Drive, Floppy Drive Construction, Floppy Disk Geometry, Cleaning and Maintenance of FDD


Processor Basics, Processor performance Factors, Processor Modes, Processor Instruction Set - CISC, RISC, Superscalar, Processor Associates - Clock- Motherboard- System bus- Cache Memory-Instruction Pipelining- Micro program Inside a Microprocessor- RAM and ROM- Microprocessor Instructions - Microprocessor Instructions: Assembly Language Intel Processor Generation Difference between Pentium and Celeron Processors


Motherboard Details - Processor Sockets or Slots- Memory Sockets- Cache and/or Cache Sockets - I/O Bus Slots - Power Connectors - Voltage Regulators - Capacitors -Keyboard and Mouse Connectors -Chipset Chips - Keyboard Controller - Real-Time Clock and CMOS Memory chip - Super I/O Controller - BIOS Chips – Battery – Jumpers - Ports and Headers - Pin Connectors Motherboard Form Factors - AT - LPX - ATX - NLX Upgrading Motherboard - Installing RAM - Installing New Processors

Power and SMPS

Power - Power Supply - AC/DC Voltage Conversion - Parts of Power Supply Basic Troubleshooting for Power Supply

BIOS Setup

Award BOS Setup - Using the Setup Utility - Main Menu Standard CMOS Setup - Standard CMOS Features- Date and Time Advanced BIOS Features, Advanced Chipset Features, Integrated Peripherals Power Management Setup, PnP/PCI Configuration Setup Frequency/Voltage Control - Load Fail-Safe Defaults - Load Optimized Defaults - Supervisor/User Password Setting - Save & Exist Setup Option- Exit without saving options

Beep Codes

1 Beep Codes - AMI BIOS Beep Codes - Phoenix Beep Codes - Award BIOS Beep Codes 2 Optimizing the PC - Optimizing the BIOS and Boot Process - Optimizing the Hard disk - Optimizing Expansion Cards - Optimizing the Processor - System File Checker - MSconfig


Combinational Digital Circuits

Gates, Boolean Functions and Expressions, Designing Gate, Networks, Useful Combinational Parts, Programmable Combinational Parts, Timing and Control, Latches, Flip-Flops and Registers, Sequential Circuits, Useful Sequential Parts, Programmable Sequential Parts, Clocks and Timing of Events.

Computer System Technology

Components to Applications, Computer Systems and their Parts, Generations, Processor and Memory Technologies, Peripherals I/O and Communications, Software Systems and Applications.

Instruction and addressing

instruction formats, types, addressing modes. Assembly Language Programs, Assembler Directives, Pseudo Instructions, Macro instructions,

Linking and Loading

8085 Instruction Set

Arithmetic/Logic Unit

Number Representation, Arithmetic Operations, Floating-Point Arithmetic.

Memory System Design

Main Memory Concepts, Cache Memory Organization, Mass Memory Concepts, Virtual Memory and Paging.

Input/Output and Interfacing

Input/Output Devices, Input/Output Programming, Interrupts, Vector And Array Processing, Shared-Memory,


Distributed Multi Computing, Programming in 8085 Microprocessor.

Suggested Readings: 
  1. Basic Digital Electronics by M.Mano.
  2. Troubleshooting and Maintaining Your PC All-in-One Desk by Dan Gookin.
  3. Build Your Own PC by Mark L. Chambers