Ecology, Environment and Tourism
Year / Semester: 
2nd Year

To inculcate awareness and appreciation towards the ecology and environment.


Block – 1 Environment – An Introduction

Unit 1 Our Environment:

Objectives, Introduction, Abiotic Environment: Atmosphere, Light, Temperature, Wind, Humidity, Water, Soil, Environment Changes with Time

Unit 2 Linkages in Nature:

Objectives, Introduction, The Ecosystem, The Components of Ecosystem, Food Chain, Food Web and Trophic Level, Interrelations and Interdependence, The Linkages, Tourism Industry’s Attempt to Relate to Nature

Unit 3 Biomes of the World:

Objectives, Introduction, Terrestrial Biomes of the World – Tundra, Coniferous Forests and Taiga, Temperate Deciduous Forests, Temperature Shrublands, Grasslands, Deserts, Tropical Savannas, Tropical Deciduous Forests, Tropical Rain Forests, The Aquatic Biomes, Biomes of India

Unit 4 Communities in Nature:

Objectives, Introduction, Community Characteristics, Species Interaction within Communities, Organization in Communities, Biodiversity

Block – 2 Environment and Conservation Ethics

Unit 5 Conservation through Ages:

Objectives, Introduction, Conservation – Definition, History of Conservation in Modern Times, Indian Philosophical Views, Importance of Conservation at the Present Moment

Unit 6 Environmental Parameters and Tourism:

Objectives, Introduction, Ecotourism, Impact of Tourism on Environment, Possible Solutions

Unit 7 Indian Philosophy and Environment:

Objectives, Introduction, A Concept of Nature, Environment in Oral Traditions, Environment in Philosophical Treatises, Environment and Classical Arts, Philosophy and Culture – Environmental Adaptation

Block – 3 Environmental Issues and Tourism Development

Unit 8 Environment and Development:

Objectives, Introduction, Environment, Development, Problematic Relationship – Population, Social Difficulties, Ecological Problems

Unit 9 Concepts of Development:

Objectives, Introduction, Conceptualizing Tourism’s Place in Development, Preservation and Development, Conservation and Development, Participation and Development, Sustainable Development

Unit 10 Responsible Tourism - Benefits:

Objectives, Introduction, Responsible / Alternative Tourism, Benefits, Problems, What is being Attempted – Role of Government, Industry and Locals

Block – 4 Environments, Community and Tourism

Unit 11 Access, Infrastructure and Land Use – Basic Issues:

Objectives, Introduction, Tourism Planning – The Overall Context, Tourism Master Plan, Physical Planning – Hill Tourism, Physical Development – Coastal Resorts

Unit 12 Community and Regional Assets:

Objectives, Introduction, Understand the Community, Regional Assets, Tension and Conflict, Community and Sustainable Tourism

Unit 13 Benefits – Consequences of the Multiplier Effect:

Objectives, Introduction, Multiplier Effect, Positive Socio-Economic Impact, Negative Impact, Impact on the Environment, The demonstration Effect on Personal Economics, Cost Benefit Analysis

Block – 5 Tourism as a Tool for Conservation

Unit 14 Practice and Potential:

Objectives, Introduction, Practice and Potential – Physical Features, Historical Sites, Wildlife, Culture, Fragility, The Way OUT

Unit 15 Site and Locational Planning:

Objectives, Introduction, Importance of Tourism Planning, Tourism Planning, Tourist Sites and Conservation

Unit 16 Uneven Regional / National Planning:

Objectives, Introduction, Causes of Regional Imbalances, Even Tourism Planning, Guidelines for Balanced Development

Unit 17 Alternatives:

Objectives, Introduction, Tourism in Conservation, Alternatives – Some Measures

Block – 6 Policy and Infrastructure

Unit 18 Tourism Policy and its Impacts :

Objectives, Introduction, Towards a Policy – Indian Tourism Policy – 1982, A Plan of Action, Perspective Plan – 1988, The National Action Plan – 1992, Fiscal and Economic Impacts, Impact on Accommodation and Transport, Impact on Tourists and Tourism, Impact on Management and Marketing, Foreign Collaboration

Unit 19 Infrastructure:

Objectives, Introduction, Tourism Infrastructure, Special Tourism Products – New Dimensions to Tourism Infrastructure, Case Study of Karnataka Tourism Development, The Local Community’s Point of View – Orissa and Kerala, Lessons of Development

Unit 20 Environmental Degradation and Tourism:

Objectives, Introduction, Resistance, Analysis of Tourism Impacts, Why Tourism? What is Eco Tourism, Conservation and Development

Unit 21 Acts and Laws:

Objectives, Introduction, Customs and Conventions, Legal and Judicial Power of the State, Concerns of the Functioning of Private Sector, Concerns Voiced By Groups Fighting for Social and Environmental Justice, Jurisdictions, Hiatus

Unit 22 Politics of Environment:

Objectives, Introduction, Whose Environment? Politics of Environment – The Global Context, Politics of Environment – The Indian Context, Environment Politics and Tourism

Block – 7 Pressures and Thresholds

Unit 23 Identifying Pressures and Understanding Thresholds:

Objectives, Introduction, Pressures on Environment, Environmental Thresholds, Some Solutions

Unit 24 Host / Local Population:

Objectives, Introduction, Opportunities to Locals, Involvement of Locals, Pressures on Hosts / Locals, Tourism and Culture

Unit 25 Visitor Behaviour:

Objectives, Introduction, Defining a Visitor, India – Destinations and Visitors, Visitor Behaviour and Environment, Checking the Imbalance

Block – 8 Environmental Impacts

Unit 26 Vegetation and Wildlife:

Objectives, Introduction, The Biogeographic Zones and the Wildlife, The Value of Wildlife, The Impacts of Tourism on Wildlife

Unit 27 Mountain:

Objectives, Introduction, Perceptions of the Mountains, Making of Hill Stations, Power in the Hills, Displacement of the Indigenous Communities, Leisure and Environment, Environment Impact Block – 9 Environmental Impacts

Unit 28 Wetlands:

Objectives, Introduction, What are Wetlands? Importance of Wetlands, Indian Wetlands, Impacts of Tourism, Excessive Tourism and Wetlands, Conservation of Wetlands

Unit 29 Island and Beach:

Objectives, Introduction, Tourism and Environment, Islands and Beaches: Their Importance, Islands – Classification and Mode of Formation, Islands – Spacial Distribution, Beaches – Mode of Formation, Beaches: Spatial Distribution, Threat to Environment, The Way Out

Unit 30 Sports – Adventure, Golf, Water:

Objectives, Introduction, Sports, Adventure Sports, Golf, Water Sports, Impact on Environment and Measures to Check Adverse Effects

Unit 31 Hotels and Resorts:

Objectives, Introduction, Hotels / Resorts as Infrastructural Component, Environmental Degradation, Remedial Measures

Block – 9 Interpreting the Environment

Unit 32 Landscape – Socio – Cultural and Natural:

Objectives, Introduction, Unit 33 Behaviour: Objectives, Introduction,

Unit 34 Flora and Fauna:

Objectives, Introduction,

Unit 35 Local Community:

Objectives, Introduction,

Suggested Readings: 
  1. R. Carson: The Sea Around Us, OUP, New York
  2. R. Carson: Silent Spring, Houghton Mifflin, New York
  3. R. Mash: The Rights of Nature, University of Wisconsin
  4. Madhav Gadgil and Ram Chandra Guha: This Fissured Land; An Ecological History of India, OUP, Delhi.
  5. Vidya Niwas Mishra (ed): Creativity and Environment, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi
  6. Wernes, Wolfgang (ed)L: Aspects of Ecological Problems and Environmental Awareness in South Asia, New Delhi